Author: V. Dimov, M.D., Allergist/Immunologist and Assistant Professor at University of Chicago
Reviewer: S. Randhawa, M.D., Allergist/Immunologist and Assistant Professor at NSU
Asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease, affecting up to 10% of adults and 30% of children (JACI, 2011).
Pathogenesis of Inflammation in Asthma
Inflammation in asthma (mind map).
Th1 and Th2 subsets (mind map)
Overview of adhesion molecules, 3 groups remembered by the mnemonic SIS:
Mast cells (mind map).
A diagram of eosinophil mediators
Diagnosis of Asthma
Allergic (atopic) march (click here to enlarge the image).
Differential Diagnosis of Asthma in Children
Severe asthma - differential diagnosis and management (click to enlarge the image). Related: Common Asthma-related Comorbidities. Medscape, 2011, (figure) http://j.mp/omHVc6
Children who are referred to specialist care with asthma that does not respond to treatment (problematic severe asthma) are a heterogeneous group.
Differential Diagnosis of Asthma in Adults
Differential diagnosis of cough, a simple mnemonic is GREAT BAD CAT TOM. Click here to enlarge the image: (GERD (reflux), Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR), Rhinitis (both allergic and non-allergic) with post-nasal drip (upper airway cough syndrome), Embolism, e.g. PE in adults, Asthma, TB (tuberculosis), Bronchitis, pneumonia, pertussis, Aspiration, e.g foreign body in children, Drugs, e.g. ACE inhibitor, CF in children, Cardiogenic, e.g. mitral stenosis in adults, Achalasia in adults, Thyroid enlargement, e.g. goiter, "Thoughts" (psychogenic), Other causes, Malignancy, e.g. lung cancer in adults).
Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) (click to enlarge the image):
Wheezing in Children - Phenotypes (click to enlarge the image).
Childhood asthma phenotypes (click to enlarge the image).
Modified Asthma Predictive Index (mAPI) (click to enlarge the image).
Treatment of asthma
Asthma classification and treatment for each stage.
Immunomodulators for allergic disorders, basic mind map.
Immunomodulators for allergic disorders, complete mind map.
Cytokine targets for immunomodulators for allergic disorders.
More minds maps here: Treatment of Pediatric Asthma
Immunomodulators for allergic respiratory disorders. Casale TB, Stokes JR. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Feb;121(2):288-96; quiz 297-8.
Asthma Inhalers (click to enlarge the image).
Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)
Relative binding affinity for glucocorticoid receptor (GR): mometasone > fluticasone > budesonide > triamcinolone.
Relative anti-inflammatory potency: mometasone = fluticasone > budesonide = beclomethasone > triamcinolone.
Diagnostic algorithm for the approach to children with chronic cough. ER, 2011.
A simplified, stepwise algorithm for the treatment of asthma. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology 2011 7(Suppl 1):S2.